Volume 1 ; Issue 1 ; in Month : Jan-June (2019) Article No : 1000102
Sayed S, Hussaini N, Syed A, et al.

Abstract
Objective: Determine the effects of repetitive brain injuries, whether concussive or not and its associated neurodevelopment abnormalities. Hypothesis: Repetitive concussive and non-concussive brain injuries increase the likelihood of developing early onset Alzheimers disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Methods: The research paper looks at numerous study designs consisting of cohort studies, longitudinal studies and systematic reviews. Studies incorporating participants with repetitive brain injuries were used in order to assess the outcomes on the brain and its long-term effects. Individuals with traumatic brain injury were monitored over time and the levels of various biomarkers and protein build-up were traced along with its effects on behavior and cognitive functioning. Results: The results of various studies have shown that individuals who sustained chronic traumatic brain injuries are more likely to have a build-up of tau protein, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. These individuals also exhibited elevated levels of S100 compared to those individuals who did not suffer chronic traumatic brain injuries. Studies involving individuals with traumatic brain injuries have revealed decreased levels of ApoE and higher levels of FDDNP signals in the amygdale and subcortical regions. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of the research conclude that repetitive traumatic brain injuries play a significant role and are a major contributing risk factor in the development of early onset Alzheimers disease (EOAD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

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